The Butterfly Lodge is uniquely created to house about 20 local butterfly species. You can get up-close to them and be awed by the beauty of these flying jewels. Read More...

The Dynamic Root Floating (DRF) Technique is a nutrient circulation hydroponics system used in a tropical climate which Oh' Farms adopts, growing hygienic and high quality leafy vegetables and culinary herbs all year round. Read More...

Designed and made in Japan, the Horizontal Pillow Packing Machine is available in two models to suit all your packing needs. Read More...

With a good understanding of the culinary and medicinal values of Herbs & Spices, not only will it enhance the flavour of food when used in cooking but also a healthier life style as it will cut down the usage of oil, artificial seasonings and condiments. Read More...

Oh' Farms has the knowhow and facilities to process ready-to-cook vegetables. Peel, cut, dice, chop or slice to your requirement, these cut-vegetables are hygienically packed and ready for immediate cooking. Read More...

Basics

Essential Nutrients

What Is Plant Nutrition?

Plant nutrition is a term that takes into account the interrelationships of mineral elements in the soil or soilless solution as well as their role in plant growth. This interrelationship involves a complex balance of mineral elements essential and beneficial for optimum plant growth. The use of soilless mixes and increased research in nutrient cultures and hydroponics as well as advances in plant tissue analysis have led to a broader understanding of plant nutrition

Characteristics Of Nutrient Elements

An element must meet each of the three criteria to be considered essential to plant growth.
1) The plant cannot complete its cycle in the absence of the element.
2) Action of the element must be specific, no other element can wholly substitute for it.
3) The element must be directly involved in the nutrient of the plant, that is, be a constituent of an essential metabolite or, at least, required for the action of an essential enzyme and not simply causing some other element to be more readily available or antagonize a toxic effect of another element.

Types Of Nutrients

Studies have helped to identify 17 elements that are generally considered to be essential for growth of higher plants. Nine of these elements - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium and nitrogen - are required in relatively large amounts. They are called macro-nutrients. The remaining eight essential elements - iron, zinc, copper, manganese, boron, chlorine, cobalt and molydenum - are known as micro-nutrients or trace elements. Trace elements are needed in only minute amounts. This is because most of them are components of enzymes or coenzyme.

Symptoms Of Nutrient Deficiency

In hydroponics, nutrient deficiencies are far more common problem than nutrient toxicities. For this reason, nutrient deficiencies will be emphasized in the following discussion on symptomatology.

Oxygen

Major functions - major component of plant's organic compound
Symptom of deficiency - rarely limiting enough to caused specific symptoms.

Carbon

Major functions - major component of plant's organic compound
Symptom of deficiency - rarely limiting enough to caused specific symptoms.

Hydrogen

Major functions - major component of plant's organic compound
Symptom of deficiency - rarely limiting enough to caused specific symptoms.

Nitrogen

Major functions - Components of nucleic, proteins, hormones, coenzymes etc
Symptoms of deficiency - Stunted growth, cholorosis (yellowing) of leaves affects whole plant

Potassium

Major function - Cofactor for enzymes involved in protein synthesis, ionic balance of cells operation of stomata
Symptom of deficiency - chlorosis, necrosis (Spots of dead tissues), weak stems and roots, older leaves most affected

Calcium

Major function - Important in formation and stability of cell walls; maintenance of membrane structure and permeability activates some enzymes.
Symptoms of deficiency- Death of shoot and root tips, young leaves and shoots most affected. Stunted growth as meristematic areas become distort and die.

Magnesium

Major function - Component of chlorophyll, activates many enzymes, essential to maintain ribosome structure
Symptom of deficiency - Chlorosis of leaves, older leaves most affected

Phosphorus

Major function - Component of nucleic acids, phospholipids, ATP, several coenzymes
Symptoms of deficiency - Stunted growth, plant dark green, affects entire plant

Sulphur

Major function - Components of proteins, coenzymes
Symptoms of deficiency - Chlorosis first affects young leaves, chlorosis pale green rather than yellowish or white

Chlorine

Major function - Act as enzyme activator in photosynthesis, functions in water balance
Symptom of deficiency - Wilted leaves, stunted roots, chlorosis, necrosis

Iron

Major function - Required for chlorophyll synthesis, component of cytochromes, may activate some enzymes
Symptom of deficiency - Chlorosis of tissue between veins, stems short and slender, affects young leaves.

Manganese

Major functions - involved in the photosynthetic production of O2 from H20, activates some enzymes
Symptom of deficiency - Chlorosis of young leaves, with smallest veins remaining green, necrosis between veins

Boron

Major functions - Functions in plant not well understood, may be involved in carbohydrate transport in phloem
Symptoms of deficiency - Death of stem and root apical meristem, leaves twisted, young tissue most affected

Zinc

Major functions - Activator of may dehydrogenase enzymes, require for the formation of the hormone idolacetic acid
Symptom of deficiency - Reduce leaf size, shorten internodes, chlorosis, spotted leaves, older leaves most affected.

Copper

Major functions - Components of plastocyanin and may enzymes that catalyze oxidation reaction
Symptom of deficiency - Young leaves dark green, twisted, wilted, leave tip die.

Cobalt

Major function - Essential for nitrogen fixation in legumes and in root nodules of nonlegumes
Symptoms of deficiency - Deficient levels could result in nitrogen deficiency symptoms.

Molybdenum

Major function - Essential for nitrogen fixation, cofactor functional in nitrate reduction
Symptoms of deficiency - Chlorosis, twisting, death of young leaves.